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By the end of the 20th century, the United States dollar was considered the world's most dominant reserve currency,[1] and the world's need for dollars has allowed the United States government as well as Americans to borrow at lower costs, granting them an advantage in excess of 0 billion per year.[2] However, the U. dollar's status as a reserve currency, by increasing in value, hurts U. exporters.[3] The Dutch guilder emerged as a de facto world currency in the 18th century due to unprecedented domination of trade by the Dutch East India Company.[4] However, the development of the modern concept of a reserve currency took place in the mid nineteenth century, with the introduction of national central banks and treasuries and an increasingly integrated global economy.